Tuesday, April 18, 2017

Maitake Pupusas


At this early date in April, we can start adding some fresh greens to our meals while still using our freezer full of foraged plants and mushrooms. Over the year, we collect many mushroom species and preserve them in various ways: in a salt brine, dehydrated, or frozen. We are trying to empty out the freezer so we can begin restocking it with fresh foraged foods!

One of the dozens of maitake from autumn 2016

Pupusas are thick stuffed tortillas made in El Salvador. The tortilla is made from masa and a touch of rice flour then stuffed with a melty, stretchy cheese, plus sometimes beans or a protein. Here we coarsely chopped up frozen maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushroom, and crisped it up with some diced onions in a sautee pan. Then it was mixed in with some shredded mozzarella and some smoked mozzarella. Robert mixes up the pupusa dough and fills the tortilla with a handful of filling before griddlling it in a cast iron plan. The result is a savory, gooey, and hot pocket with wonderfully stretchy cheese inside.

Mixed veggie curtido

Pupusas are typically served with curtido, a lightly fermented cabbage slaw with red chilies and vinegar. We didn't have any chilis on hand, but wanted to add some greens and other fresh flavors to the slaw. Our small yard yielded some chickweed (Stellaria media), sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella), and yard garlic (Allium vineale) for a kick.

Chickweed

Sheep sorrel

Yard onions, crow's garlic, it has many common names, Allium vineale

Sunday, April 16, 2017

Milky Mushroom Chowder



The winter Mushroom University classes that we attend in New York feature a potluck lunch. Robert cooked up a Milky Mushroom Chowder with the salt brined mixed Lactarius/Lactifluus mushrooms we preserved last year.



The three species are L. hygrophoroides, L. volemus, and L corrugis. They are preserved by first boiling the mushrooms for about 15 minutes, then layering them in a glass jar with nothing but sea salt and a few bay leaves. Within a few days, the salt will draw the excess moisture from the mushrooms and there will be enough liquid covering the mushrooms. To eat the mushrooms or use them in a recipe, they need to be soaked for a few days in several changes of fresh water to remove the excess salt. Then they can be cooked vigorously in soups or eaten with a good eastern European bread. The milky mushrooms retain an excellent texture this way, which is great since they don't dry and reconstitute well and we are limited on our freezer space.

L. corrugis has white milk, light orange gills, matching brown cap and stem, and often a corrugated cap.

 Lactarius/Lactifluus fungi are unique in that they bleed a colored milky substance when cut or scratched, if they are fresh; dried or older specimens will not have as much milk.  The color of the milk can range from clear to white, yellow, orange, or even blue. The milky substance can sometimes carry an odor like fish, and can stain your skin or anything else it touches.

L. hygrophoroides has white milk, creamy colored gills, a matching light orange-brown cap and stem, and widely spaced gills

Lactarius/Lactifluus are related to Russulas, the crumble-cap mushrooms, but don't disintegrate as easily. The cell walls of Russulas are more breakable and crumbly than most fungi due to shorter, more globular cells vs. elongated, fibrous cells of most fungi. Lactarius/Lactifluus have similar cells, so they cut cleanly and have a wonderful crunchy texture once cooked or salted. 

L. volemus has lots of white milk, creamy colored gills, a matching light golden orange cap and stem, and often emits a fishy odor from the milk that goes away when cooked

In a relatively rainy summer, the milky mushrooms will fruit in mostly hardwood forests in crazy amounts. 2016 was dry and we collected very few, but they all went into the salt brine. The edible species Lactarius/Lactifluus are among our list of favorite edible fungi because of their great texture and taste. Not all species of milky mushrooms are edible, please do further research or join your local mushroom club to learn the local mushrooms where you live.

Friday, April 14, 2017

Acorn and Spicebush Berry Sweet Buns

Spicebush berry-filled acorn sweet buns
As spring starts warming up the afternoons, the mornings can still be a bit chilly. We are using up some of the stored wild foods in our pantry and freezer before the new season of collecting begins. Both acorn flour and spicebush berries are kept preserved in the freezer, ready to use as needed. Sweet buns are a sweet treat for weekend breakfasts, and to take on the road when heading out early in the mornings to drive to classes.

As the tannins are removed, the water will get less cloudy with each rinse
 


Cold leaching red oak acorns (Quercus sp.) in the autumn takes about a week and a half. First we dry the acorns in the shell for a few hours in the dehydrator. Once shelled, we try to peel most of the papery skins off before grinding them coarsely. The cold water soaking process begins, rinsing and changing the water every day, and lasts until the water no longer gets cloudy and tea-colored from the tannins. The ground  acorns will taste sweet. Lots of people read that white oak acorns from rounded-lobed trees are less tannic than red or black spiky-lobed trees, but they should all be tasted and leached until no longer astringent. Tannins may upset your stomach or cause nausea and vomiting. Tannins may also interfere with the absorption of iron found in plant-based foods, so we would rather eliminate them. The resulting ground nuts are dried again in the dehydrator before being finely ground in our Vitamix flour carafe. The acorn flour is stored in jars in our freezer so it doesn't get rancid, ready to use when needed.



Spicebush berries (Lindera benzoin) are collected in autumn, early in the season before the birds get them all! The oval berries ripen to red and have one oval, black seed in the center. The berries and the simple leaves, as well as the scratched twigs all emit a spicy aroma.  The fresh green leaves have a mildly spicy, citrusy scent and flavor that makes a wonderful tea, but the leaves do not dry very well; use them fresh. The twigs are very reminiscent of allspice, and be steeped in hot water for a tea or used to skewer meats and vegetables for grilling. We also like to just chew on them once the grey bark is scratched off.



It's the berries of spicebush that pack the greatest flavor. When ripe, they are still firm. The scent and flavor is intensely and exotically spicy like cinnamon or cloves with a hint of citrus and black pepper. They can be slowly chewed, but a big bite will overwhelm your mouth. In some years, they are easy to collect in abundance, but scarce in other years. Spicebushes are either male of female, so there must be a mixed population for the bushes to set berries, or sometimes the flowers get stunted by a late frost in spring. Spicebush berries don't dry well--they lose a lot of the oils that give them their strong flavor; however they freeze wonderfully to use all year. The only caveat with freezing is that they lose their brilliant red color and darken, but all of the spiciness stays.

Spicebush berry ice cream

Spicebush berries make an awesome ice cream and can be ground from fresh or frozen before being added to baked goods that call for cinnamon, allspice, or cloves. We also add them to flavor applesauce and jellies.


These acorn buns are filled with spicebush infused sugar. When baking pastries with acorn flour, I try not to replace more than 1/3 of the wheat flour with acorn flour so it will still hold together. The sugar was made by whirring frozen spicebush berries in the food processor with brown and white sugar, until the berries were just specks, then the sugar gets sprinkled over butter and rolled up into the acorn dough like cinnamon buns. Served warm, they are fragrant and soft, with a topping of sweet glaze.


Thursday, April 13, 2017

Sassafras Digging for Tea




See the three leaf shapes?

Now that the ground has thawed, we can get out to dig some roots, rhizomes, and bulbs. In spring they are nice and fat because the plant is still dormant and hasn't used the stored energy in the bulbs yet.
Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) is a native tree in North America that grows and is common in the eastern United States from Iowa, south to Texas, and to the east coast. The bark of mature tree trunks is deeply furrowed and dark reddish-brown, while the bark of young saplings and twigs is green. Sassafras trees have three, smooth-edged, differently shaped leaves on a single tree: a simple oval leaf, a bi-lobed leaf that looks like a mitten, and a tri-lobed leaf that kind of looks like a dinosaur footprint. The small, yellowish flowers have not started blooming yet here in Connecticut, making it still a good time to dig the roots. The roots of sassafras grow horizontally to the surface of the ground and often not very deeply, making them relatively easy to collect. Sassafras suckers many small saplings each year from the "mother" tree, and most will not survive under the forest canopy. Digging the roots of small sassafras saplings will not affect the overall population in the wild, it is sometimes even considered a weed tree.

Outer bark and cambium layer shaves from sassafras roots


The smaller roots and outer skin of bigger roots of sassafras contain the most fragrant parts to use for an infusion. We just chop the smaller roots into discs, and skin the larger roots with a machete once washed well to remove the dirt. The chopped roots are then air-dried in a warm, sunny window and stored in jars. The infusion is made by gently simmering the roots for about 20 minutes, and can be served warm or cold, lightly sweetened with honey. The infusion is a golden-red color and very fragrant--almost spicy. "Root" beer can also be lightly fermented from sweetened sassafras decoction to add fizzy bubbles and a very small alcoholic content. Seltzer can also be added to a particularly strong decoction for bubbles. Note: the FDA has put out a warning that sassafras is carcinogenic because of safrol. They determined this by dosing rats with incredibly high levels of pure safrol oil to possibly limit the production and sale of safrol, a component in the manufacture of the street drug Ecstasy. We feel that drinking reasonable amounts of sassafras tea is safe and very enjoyable. Please make your own decision as to the consumption of sassafras tea.--edited to clarify our opinion.

Sassafras root infusion

Fermented sassafras root beer

Sassafras infusion, or tea, was once considered medicinal in the early colonies, "good for whatever ails you". It was exported to England in large quantities until the market was over saturated. Sassafras was also considered a great cure for syphilis, and many people probably didn't want to be seen drinking it for fear of being potentially a sufferer of the disease!

Sassafras flowers
 
The leaves of sassafras also make a fragrant spice; it is actually the source for filé powder. Filé can be made by collecting the leaves in the summer, drying them, and grinding them finely; we use a coffee grinder. Filé is used in Louisiana Creole cooking as a spice and a thickener, commonly in gumbo.

Filé powder made from dried and ground sassafras leaves

Wednesday, March 1, 2017

Spring Classes, Walks, and Lectures for 2017











The 3 Foragers have several educational presentations and walks coming up this spring in the Connecticut and Rhode Island area. We are available for seasonal edible plant programs, fungi ID classes, invasive plant talks, and guided walks throughout the year. We work with libraries, nature centers, summer camps, land trusts, and garden clubs to educate the public about conservation and responsible harvest of wild foods. Please check back to find classes as we add to this growing list of classes and walks. Contact us at  kraczewski@comcast.net.


March Mushroom Madness Presentation, March 26, 9:00 AM-11: 30 AM, Sessions Woods WMA, 341 Milford St, Burlington CT 06013. (860) 675-8130

Come out for a talk and slideshow entitled "Foraging the Fantastic, Delicious, Deadly, and Glowing Mushrooms of Connecticut" given by The 3 Foragers featuring Connecticut fungi. You'll have an opportunity to meet members of the Connecticut Valley Mycological Society as well as learn about club membership. There will be coffee and snacks served beginning at 9 am when the doors open. The program will begin at approximately 10 am. This lecture is free for the public, $5.00 for CVMS members.



Foraging and Eating Invasive Plants Presentation, April 11, 6:30 PM- 7:45 PM, Cheshire Public Library, 104 Main St, Cheshire CT 06410. (203)-272-2245

Use your appetite to combat invasive plants by learning the most common and delicious ones in Connecticut with an educational slide presentation, including recipe ideas. Featuring The 3 Foragers, a family studying, photographing, and tasting wild foods for more than a decade in southeastern Connecticut. Free admission, registration appreciated.



CANCELLED Edible Wild Plants of Spring Presentation, April 17, 6 PM- 7:15 PM, North Smithfield Public Library, Slatersville Rhode Island 02876. (401) 767-2780

As the warmer temperatures and longer days of spring unfold, many tender, young edible shoots, plants, flowers, and even a few fungi awaken a forager’s senses and delight. Learn how to identify, sustainably harvest, and prepare the wild foods of spring, from invasive bamboo shoots to the lemony tang of fresh wood sorrel, including some of the early edible fungi of the season. Join The 3 Foragers as they discuss the edible plants and fungi of spring, with their original photos and recipe ideas featured in an educational slide presentation. Free admission, registration appreciated. CANCELLED



Edible Wild Plants of Spring Presentation, April 26, 6 PM-7:15 PM, Kingston Public Library, 2605 Kingston Rd, Kingston RI 02881. (401) 783-8254

See description above. Free admission, registration appreciated.


Go Wild! Spring Edible Plant Foraging Talk and Walk, April 30, 1 PM-3 PM, Trumbull Nature and Arts Center, 715 Main St, Trumbull CT 06611

As the warmer temperatures and longer days of spring unfold, many tender, young edible shoots, plants, flowers, and even a few fungi awaken a forager’s senses and delight. Learn how to identify, sustainably harvest, and prepare the wild foods of spring, from invasive bamboo shoots to the lemony tang of fresh wood sorrel, including some of the early edible fungi of the season. Join The 3 Foragers as they discuss the edible plants and fungi of spring, with their original photos and recipe ideas featured in an educational slideshow, and finish with a walk outside to put some of those newly learned skills to the test. Pre-register with TNAC at http://www.trumbullnatureandartscenter.org/index.html Cost: $3.00 per person, ages 7 and up, with adult.


Edible Wild Plants of Spring Talk and Walk, May 6, 10 AM- 12:30 PM, Ansonia Nature Center, 10 Deerfield Lane, Ansonia CT 06401. (203) 736-1053

As the warmer temperatures and longer days of spring unfold, many tender, young edible shoots, plants, flowers, and even a few fungi awaken a forager’s senses and delight. Learn how to identify, sustainably harvest, and prepare the wild foods of spring, from invasive bamboo shoots to the lemony tang of fresh wood sorrel, including some of the early edible fungi of the season. Join The 3 Foragers as they discuss the edible plants and fungi of spring, with their original photos and recipe ideas featured in an educational slideshow., then we will head outside at the Ansonia Nature Center to explore and discover some wild food. Register with Ansonia Nature Center, space is limited. Cost: TBD


On the Table Food Series: Edible Wild Plants of Spring Presentation, May 10, 6:30 PM-8 PM, Providence Public Library, 150 Empire St, Providence RI 02903. (401) 455-8000

As the warmer temperatures and longer days of spring unfold, many tender, young edible shoots, plants, flowers, and even a few fungi awaken a forager’s senses and delight. Learn how to identify, sustainably harvest, and prepare the wild foods of spring, from invasive bamboo shoots to the lemony tang of fresh wood sorrel, including some of the early edible fungi of the season. Join The 3 Foragers as they discuss the edible plants and fungi of spring, with their original photos and recipe ideas featured in an educational slideshow. Free admission, registration required.
 


Edible Wild Plants of Spring Talk and Walk, May 13, 10 AM-12:30 PM, James L. Goodwin State Forest, 23 Potter Rd, Hampton CT 06247. (860) 455-9534

See description above. Cost: $5.00 for the public, free for Friends of Goodwin and CFPA members. Registration is REQUIRED, space is limited.


Edible Wild Plants of Spring Presentation, May 25, 6:30 PM-7:45 PM, Woonsocket Harris Public Library, 303 Clinton Rd, Woonsocket RI 02895. (401) 769-9044

See description above. Free admission, registration appreciated. 


Edible Wild Plants of Spring Talk and Walk, May 27, 1 PM-2:30 PM, Bushy Hill Nature Center, 253 Bushy Hill Rd, Deep River CT 06417 www.bushyhill.org/ 

See description above. Donations to Bushy Hill accepted. Registration appreciated.





 








Sunday, January 15, 2017

Yule Log 2017


Another year, another cold winter, and another Yule Log cake. This is a vanilla bisquit filled with a dark chocolate whipped ganache, frosted with coffee-flavored Italian buttercream. I made the traditional meringue mushrooms, and jazzed them up this year, with my attempt at five different species: Trametes versicolor, Amanita muscaria, Cortinarius iodes, Agaicus campestris, and Cantharellus cibarius. I ended up using colored candy melts for the colors and details, and the pine needle base was green candy covered All Bran cereal.



Monday, January 2, 2017

Wild Mushrooms of Polipoli Springs, Maui, Hawaii, 2016



We usually head out to a warm and tropical location during the middle of a New England winter, so we did a little research into the fungi of one of our destinations, Maui. A good deal of the fungi on Hawaii are alien, introduced with vegetation and soil from other places, therefore, many of the mushrooms are familiar to us. Only an estimated 17% of fungi are considered native Hawaiian species. Fungi can be found almost all year in the subtropical environments, but the more abundant season is from July through January. Fallen palm leaves and casuarina needles, along with dead wood, coconut husks, lawns, and compost piles of mulch are all good places to look for fruiting mushrooms. We purchased Mushrooms of Hawaii by Don Hemmes and Dennis Desjardin to help us identify the mushrooms we found. On Maui, we had to rent a Jeep to ascend to Polipoli Springs State Recreation Area.

Once a dense forest of Koa, mamane, and ʻohiʻa lehua, the Polipoli Spring State Recreation Area is composed of 10 acres of the Kula Forest Reserve. When the park was established many of the native trees were removed. However, in the 1930s the the area was reforested with pines, eucalyptus, tropical ash, cypress, China-fir, and redwood. Due to the elevation (6,200 feet), Polipoli Spring State Recreation Area can actually get pretty cold (temperatures can reach freezing at night). When we headed up at 9 am, there was frost on the grasses and trees, and the mud puddles were crusted with ice. The Jeep was for the clearance and 4 wheel-drive needed to get through some of the holes in the dirt road, and some of the switchbacks at elevation without anything but sheer mountain out the window were a bit terrifying for me, but Robert was laid back about it all, and even had fun driving. We walked a 5-mile loop around a few trails, passing through dense stands of eucalyptus, thimbleberry thickets, assorted conifers planted in rows, into low-hanging clouds that would white out the trail, and by hills heavily blanketed in moss.



Before we got to the parking lot at the top of Polipoli, we passed a couple of familiar fungi on the drive up. First was a Laetiporus gilbertsonii, a relative of our eastern choice edible Laetiporus sulphureus, growing on eucalyptus. Even though it exuded juice when cut, it was as hard as wood. Due to its condition and suspicion in causing upset stomachs because of substrate, we didn't collect it for consumption. Then we passed some Hypholoma fasiculare growing roadside in some wood chips, another we recognize from our cooler, wet autumn season in Connecticut.


Starting out on the grassy portion of the trail, we ran into this butterscotch-colored beauty, possibly one of the Gymnopilus species? Here you can also see the just-melted dew covering the grass.


This is another one we recognize from home, Tricholomopsis rutilans, common name plums and custard. It is usually found growing attached to underground conifer roots, even though it appears to originate in grass.



Plenty of down dead wood up at Polipoli to support saprobic fungi. The cooler temperatures at elevation provided us with some familiar fungi we find in temperate Connecticut, like these two crusts, Phlebia tremellosa and Stereum hirsutum.


This puffball appeared similar to one of our pigskin puffballs, except for the extensive pseudo-stem. Our Mushrooms of Hawaii book IDs this as Scleroderma verrucosum due to the pink staining when the peridium is cut.


This brightly colored and small (most specimens were about 1 cm wide) polypore is the highly photogenic Favolaschia calocera. First observed in Madagascar, it has recently spread around the world and mycologists fear that it may be displacing native fungi species as it spreads through the paleotropics. Once Robert first noticed it on decayed twigs and fern stalks and we knew what to look for, we all suddenly spotted it often.



Chroogomphus sp. is a fungi we found a few years ago when making our first attempt to ascend to Polipoli (in a regular rental car, we never made it past the first 200' on the dirt road before bottoming out and turning around). Known to be associated with conifers in winter in California, this was likely introduced with the planted conifers. This may be C. vinicolor or C. rutilans, we didn't collect a specimen and scope the spores (hey, vacation!).



There are not too many Boletes in Hawaii, beyond a few Suillus and the elusive coconut-associated bolete, Pulveroboletus (Buchwaldoboletus) xylophilus. This Suillus pungens was a big surprise, as it isn't listed in the Mushrooms of Hawaii book, but it IS listed in the Mushrooms of the Redwood Coast, another book we own. This mushroom is normally associated with Monterey Pines, and was likely imported by accident with the conifer plantings done in the 1930's as well.


And as we were heading out of Polipoli in the late afternoon, Gillian asked a question from the back seat of the Jeep as we were driving along the dirt road that was cut into the grassy embankment, "Hey, isn't that a morel?". Haha, very funny, you can't fool us. BUT IT WAS. The weather at Polipoli mimics our southern New England weather in May very well: cold nights, warm days, and plenty of rain, so it makes sense. Morchella are reported in Hawaii, but fruiting in a scattered manner and difficult to see because of the dense undergrowth.

Planted conifers in Polipoli